Need to Redue a Paper…

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Need to Redue a Paper…


The paper needs to be a rhetorical analysis of another writer’s argument…….on Fleming’s “Youthful Indiscretions”



English 101-209


Professor McGraw




Essay #1 Rhetorical Analysis






Assignment: Write a paper formatted in MLA style of four to five pages in length (use Times New Roman 12) that addresses the topic below.  You must include a Works Cited page.




Following the examples and instructions in Chapter Eight of Writing Arguments, write a rhetorical analysis of another writer’s argument.  You may (in fact, you are encouraged to) develop your essay beyond the outline given in chapter eight.  Part of your critique may include a discussion of potential arguments and counter-arguments that the author could have made and an analysis of the ways that including those counter-arguments (and the rebuttals) might have strengthened the author’s argument.




You may respond to any of the following essays:


            Fleming’s “Youthful Indiscretions”




What is a Rhetorical Argument? A Rhetorical Argument is basically a persuasive argument that uses one or a combination of its three distinct “appeals”: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos. An argument that makes use of Ethos appeals to the character of the speaker. An argument that makes use of Pathos appeals to emotion. Lastly, an argument that makes use of Logos appeals to reason. In general, a Rhetorical Argument may make use of one or a combination of any of the appeals. Here are several examples of the three distinct appeals commonly used in Rhetorical Arguments.

To use Ethos is to appeal to the character of the speaker. That is, a claim may be argued and may be supported through a reference to the reputation, character or authority of the speaker. For example,

I will never steal from the cash register because I have been employee of the month for three consecutive months now. As far as our colleagues know, I am a kind and religious person who has been very helpful to my fellow employees in this restaurant. It does not make sense to accuse me of stealing the money.

To use Pathos is to appeal to the emotions of the reader or the audience. The primary goal is to persuade the reader or the audience through the use of key words or language that appeal to the feelings of a person. For example,

John will never steal from the cash register. If he did, he will be fired from work and will be sent to jail. Who will now finance the needs of his family? His wife does not have a job. He has three little kids who need the guidance of a loving father. Without John by their side, they will grow fatherless and, God knows, they may turn into homeless kids. John should not be suspected of committing the crime.

To use Logos is to use reason to persuade or to make an argument. Typically, it makes use of deductive or inductive arguments to prove a point. For example,

(Logos using a deductive argument)
Chris was alone in the office at 8 o’clock in the evening. The crime took place at around 30 minutes past 8PM. Therefore, there is reason to become suspicious that Chris stole the money from the cash register.

(Logos using an inductive argument)
Chris has a previous theft record in the city police. He said the other day that he barely had any money left in his bank account and that he had no money to buy food. The security cameras also reveal that he was inside the store premises the night the crime took place. Therefore, there is reason to become suspicious that Chris stole the money from the cash register.

Ethos, Pathos and Logos are three of the argument types usually used in a Rhetorical Argument. Most persuasive arguments using the rhetorical approach make use of a combination from any of three argument types. You may also want to know more about Classical Arguments, or how to use Ethos, or how to use logos in a Rhetorical argument.


Social Networking








Change is inevitable and the urge to embrace the ever advancing technology especially the use of internet to socially connect with friends, families and associates has become one of the most vital factors in transforming lives as far as communication and social interaction is concerned. The drive to explore the social nature of human being has brought about the dynamics in the social platform where some people appreciate the importance of such platforms while others at the same time takes advantage of the diversity within the system to carry out the malicious ideas.


The introduction of social networking sites has brought about positive effects in terms of spreading and sharing of information between people. However, there are also loopholes that exists within the social networking system as well negative effects on the quantitative performance of people who spend most of their time on social network and do very little to account for their daily output in terms of work.


There is an array of social network sites where people share ideas and exchange personal views, photos and even carry out businesses. However, some of these sites are restricted to specific functions, for example online dating sites which only allow people to find soul mates and express their feelings with respect to romantic relationship issues. The internet has made it very easy for people to connect by using these social networking sites.


There’s a general tendency of associating social media sites with Facebook. This is basically because Facebook was the first social network site and therefore it enjoys popularity. Since its inception in 2004, Facebook has grown in terms of members subscribed as well as user requirements. Mark Zuckerberg alongside his mates from Harvard University founded Facebook with an intention of creating a network between students.


 Initially, creating a Facebook account was limited to Harvard University students but it later spread to Boston areas and now worldwide. Anyone interested in having a Facebook account can easily create a profile and sign up to Facebook including up to a 13 year old. Facebook is user friendly as it requires very little to have an account. After registration, one only needs to create a profile and add friends then he’s ready to send messages, exchange photos, update views and manipulate his profile settings. This is common to almost all social networking sites including MySpace, Twitter, and Instagram among others. It also permits users to create and join groups.


Within the first year after inception of Facebook, approximately one million people had subscribed to the social network. By June 2014 the number was as high as one billion. Facebook has come along with more interesting features such as voice calls, video calls as well as video viewing. It has also enabled privacy options to its users by enabling users to control their profiles’ privacy and also block unwanted users from accessing their timelines.


Social networking sites for example Instagram works quite differently from Facebook in the sense that Instagram is more of posting photos unlike Facebook which cuts across the board. The privacy in Instagram allows users following each other to view photos but restricts them from sharing photos. However, the process of signing up to these sites remains the same.


While social networking is appreciated for keeping contacts and enhancing communication between friends, families, and acquaintances, it also poses various social, health and financial risks. These sites are useful as they create a platform for businesses to carry out their advertisements, online sales, banking etc. They also enable the social media to pass and share information by enabling them to create Facebook pages which users can like and get information whenever it is updated.


Today, most social sites apart from creating an avenue for sharing information and posting personal views, it is also being used by business to advertise jobs and carry out business. Most social site users have access to information about companies, products, business and career development ideas. There are also educational pages that enable users to access relevant academic information necessary for their personal academic development.


 There are effects that most social site users are more than likely oblivious of. These effects include health risks, legal issues and job issues (Pennsylvania Bar Institute 34). The health effects as a result of using social sites could be due to the photos or comments people make that are aimed at causing depression or altering the mental stability of users. Owing to the fact that these social sites incorporate even the young people, certain photos for example the erotic photos erode the minds of these young people rendering them perverts at a very tender age.


Several legal issues have arisen due to inappropriate use of language in the social platform. Some social site users use and spread hatred messages aimed at causing acrimony or ethnic hatred among other users which is against the law. Such cases have been tracked by the legal professionals and most of the perpetrators have been brought to book for spewing such messages on social sites. There are also cases of cyber-crimes and cyber bullying orchestrated by users who have been traced and penalized for such illegal acts. However, most of these victims are charlatans and swindlers who operate under pseudonyms and therefore it makes it difficult for the security officers to trace them. On that note, there have been demands from security agencies that social sites device mechanisms that ensures users register to those sites with their original identities.


There have been several cases where people lose their jobs because of ignorance when using the social networking sites. There’s a case scenario of a student from the University of Chicago who lost his internship opportunities after the company he wanted to work for viewed his Facebook page just to realize he was a pervert whose interests were smoking cigar, killing people and obsessive sex (Freeman 112). A chemical Engineer also lost his job after posting on Facebook that he liked to blow things up. This is one of the prices it pays to be ignorant of postings on social networking platforms.


Several cases of murder, rape and kidnappings have been reported to have been planned through these social networking sites (Freeman 112). Most of these acts have been successful while a few of them have not been successful. There was an incident where a teen age girl was raped by three men she befriended on Myspace who duped and drugged her. In Colorado, detectives apprehended six men of sexual assault of a young girl presumed to be their friend on Myspace. The recurrence of such cases has raised concerns among parents and legislators on the future of social networking sites with respect to security.


Although the idea of protecting social site users from such risks is challenging, parents in conjunction with legislators are proposing for a system that allows for parental control and age authentication system. One fundamental loophole that should be reviewed is the issue of age limits of people interested in joining these sites. It is on record that juvenile especially teenagers below 16 years have been the victims of these circumstances. This is because; they are unable to make sound decisions without the help of their parents(Pennsylvania Bar Institute 34). Age verification system should be put in place to authenticate the ages of social site users by limiting children below the age of 15 years from having social site accounts.


The trans-formative nature of social networking sites has positively impacted many lives in terms on connections and information dispensation. However, of importance to note are the ills posed by these sites that have perpetually succeeded in annihilating today’s generation in terms of morals. The future of social networking sites is as good as it gets if measures are not taken to curb the operations of these social platforms.






















Works Cited


Facebook, Twitter & Blogging…oh Myspace!: Legal Issues with Social Networking Sites.


            Mechanicsburg: Pennsylvania Bar Institute, 2009. Print.


Freeman, Linton C. The Development of Social Network Analysis: A Study in the Sociology of Science. Vancouver: Empirical Press, 2004. Print.


The dangers of social networking sites n.d. n. pag. Print.






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