Understanding and coping with change using critical thinking questions.

Understanding and coping with change using critical thinking questions.

1.  How have changes in the workplace during he past 25 years affect organizational policies?
2.  Are all manager change agents? 
3.  Do think the workplace is today is more stressful than it was in the 1970’s?  Why?

The need for change has been necessary according to Goodman and Kurke (1982), “A casual reflection on change should indicate that it encompasses almost all of our concepts in the organizational behavior literature” (p. 1).  For instance think about attitudes, work teams motivation, leadership, communication, organizational structures human resource practices and organizational structures.  Change must be an integral.   

I hope you found this guidance helpful.  Have a great week.

Communication Types      


Successful organizations need to be able to effectively communicate with all of their stakeholders.  Good communication is the foundation of successful relationships.  There are two types of communication which we will look at; verbal and nonverbal. Verbal communication uses words, either written or spoken (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2009). Nonverbal communication, or body language, is a vital form of communication—a natural, unconscious language that broadcasts our true feelings and intentions in any given moment, and clues us in to the feelings and intentions of those around us (Abel, 1990). Research shows that clues in the nonverbal “channels” of communication (how something is said) are often more important than words alone (what is said). Nonverbal cues are communicated through facial expression, hand gestures, body movements, touch, and personal space.  


Nonverbal communication can include the way you dress, the way you sit, and the way you shake hands.  These actions can communicate volumes. You can tell a police officer by their dress and the same with a judge.  People would think twice about going to a management job interview with a fortune 500 company dressed in sweet pants and a polo shirt.


Nonverbal communication is also more difficult to fake.  That is because you cannot control all of the signals you are constantly giving off about what you really think or feel. If you try to control the signals you give off, your actions come across as unnatural (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2009).  If a person makes, what could be construed as a mean or sarcastic statement but does do so with a smile on their face, the person who is the recipient of the communication knows that there was no malice intended by the comment. 


In virtual organizations nonverbal cues are not always apparent.  When using email or text the sender must be cognizant of the words they use and the way they phase their comments. Using emoticons helps rely your feelings but is not a significant as actually seeing the person’s facial expressionJ. For example in online classes the instructor and students must be aware that the tone of their voice or the expression on their face is not evident to those who are reading their posts. In the  Body Language Video  the speaker talks about the importance of body language in business.




 Virtual Organizations


In today’s fast pace environment companies are utilizing virtual operations for to help support their business.  A virtual organization is one where the members are separated by geography.  The members of the organization usually communicate via the computer or other electronic devices. Communication is vital in all organizations, but more so in virtual ones.  Without communication, the boundary-spanning among virtual entities would not be possible (DeSanctis & Monge, 2006). 

It is difficult for members of the team to form relationships (Cooper & Muench, 1997). Therefore, effective communication is vital if the team is become cohesive and productive.  Because virtual tasks must be completed team members must find the best method of communication.  Video conferencing has been utilized by many organizations because it allows the team members to not only hear but see the other members of the team.  However, a number of studies report no superiority of video communication over audio or text-based media (Kasper & Morris, 1988).   Not all organizations that use virtual teams are solely virtual organizations.  Companies use virtual methods to connect to globally distributed teams (Carpenter, Bauer, & Erdogan).




Abel, M. J. (1990). Experiences in an exploratory distributed organization. In Galagher, J., Kraut, R., and Egido, C. (Eds.) Intellectual teamwork (pp. 489510). Norwood , NJ : Erlbaum.


Cooper, W. W., and Muench, M. L. (1997). Virtual organizations: Practice and the literature. Working paper, University of Texas at Austin.


DeSanctis, G., & Monge, P. (2006).  Communication processes for virtual organizations. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 3(4), 142-160.

Goodman, P.S. & Kurke, L.B. (1982). Studies of Change in Organization:  A statues Report.  Change in Organization.  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass.


Kasper, G.M. and Morris, A.H. (1988). The effect of presentation media on recipient performance in text-based information systems.Journal of Management Information Systems, 4(4), 2543.


Kinicki, A. & Kreitner, R. (2009). Organizational behavior: Key concepts, skills and best practices. (4th Ed). New York, NY. McGraw-Hill Irwin.

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